Wednesday, October 3, 2018

History of Quantum Theory

History of Quantum Theory

About 118 years ago on 14 December 1900, Max Plank laid the foundations of Quantum Theory.

Plank gave a rule working on the black body radiation, which is known as Vein-Planck Rule. Later he found that the results of many experiments came out of it. He re-analyzed his rule and reached a surprising new discovery, which is called Quantum hypothesis of Planck. These packets are called Quanta. The energy of every quanta is fixed and depends only on the frequency (color) of the light (radiation). (The formula E = hde where h is the Planck determiner and ν frequency.)

This hypothesis of Planck created a stir in the physical world. This is where the new branch of physics was born from quantum physics. Later using this hypothesis, Einstein interpreted the light electrical effect, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. According to this hypothesis, light and other electromagnetic radiation moves in the form of small small packets of energy, not continuous flow of energy.

Plank was awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize for the establishment of Quantum Physics.

Quantum Physics was one of the most interesting and important principles of the 20th century. This is a theory that successfully interprets processes such as radioactivity and antimatter. It is also a theory that successfully describes the behavior of light and basic particles at the astral level.

But the biggest problem with quantum physics is that it can not be easily explained. Quantum particles can be present in many stages and locations simultaneously. The most important thing of quantum theory, filled with uncertainty and contradictions, is that it raises finger on the existence of Objective Reality, due to which there has been much criticism in the scientific community. Even Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist after Isaac Newton, had a great deal of difficulty in accepting the quantum theory. He said:

"God does not play dice!" (God does not play).

In the 21st Century, scientific quantum physics is engaged in sophistication of the mysterious world so that its application can be made in the field of advanced technology. Along with this, scientists are engaged in quantum theory of quantitative physics and general relativity together to create the theory of quantum gravity.

Birth of a strange idea

Quantum theory was born in the early decades of the 20th century when traditional physics proved unsuccessful in describing many important physical concepts. According to earlier theories, atoms could vibrate at any frequency. Due to this misconception, scientists incorrectly concluded that nuclear can emit energy of infinite quantities. Then it was named the ultraviolet catastrophe.

The year 1900 for quantum physics was a lifelong year in which Max Planck suggested this solution to this problem that atoms can vibrate only on specific or quarantined frequencies. Subsequently, in 1905, Albert Einstein highlighted the secret of the effect of the photoelectric effect. The light falling on the metals in light-emitting effects emits electrons of specific energy. In the era of time, the principle of light in waves was proved to be unsuccessful in explaining the principle of electromagnetic influence. For this, Einstein suggested that the light is in the form of packets of photons. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for the Photon Principle of Light.

In recent days, a new dimension is associated with quantum theory. This new theory is even more bizarre. According to this principle, quantum particles exhibit many behaviors simultaneously. This is because they  exist together in the infinite parallel universes .

Bose-Einstein Statistics: A Quantum Concept

In 1924 Satyendra Nath Bose proposed a completely new method to explain Plank's radiation rule. He imagined the light as a gas of massless particles (now called photon gas). Bose was successful in demonstrating that the particles of gas behave according to a substantially different statistic due to its indistinguishable nature by not following the precise rules of boltzmann statistics . Einstein was successful in demonstrating Bose's theoretical reasoning on photons with diffuse particles that he followed the statistics developed by Bose. It is now called Bose-Einstein Statistics on the name of Bose and Einstein.

Revolutionary discoveries in the field of quantum physics

In the period of three years from January 1925 to January 1928, a new flood of new discoveries came in the field of quantum theory. Wolfgang Poly gave the principle of Pauli Exclusion Priniciple in 1925, according to which no two electron can remain in the same quantum state. In the same year Werner Heisenberg discovered Maxric Mechanics with Max Bourne and Pascal Jordan. In 1926, Erwin Schrodinger proposed an alternative theory for the arrangement of the quantum universe, which was named Wave Mechanics .

In 1920, Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirrac proposed that electrons follow a new statistic. It  was named Fermi Dirrac Statstics . Electrons belong to a class of particles called fermion. Electrons, protons, neutrons, etc., which form substances, are all feminine ones whose spin is semi integer. In contrast, the bosons (photons, helium atoms, alpha particles, mesons, gravitons etc. are all bosons) have an integer spin (including zero) and these particles follow Bose-Einsteen Statstics .

Theory of uncertainty

The explanation of wave particle duality for almost the last 70 years has been based on the basis of Hisenberg Uncertainity Principle, another major aspect of quantum theory was the Heisenberg Uncertainity Principle . This theory was rendered in 1927 by Werner Heisenberg . It is impossible to calculate the precise measurement of the position of any particle and its momentum together. According to the theory of uncertainty, the measurements occurring in the nuclear world have an underlying undervalibility which is the fundamental aspect of quantum physics. Recent wave that appears during the tests, according to tests carried out in-particle dualism behind (Wave particle duality) root cause is a process that Attengelment (Entanglement) says.

According to the idea of attenagment , things in the world of quantum are not independent of each other, if they react in each other or they have come into existence through the same process. They connect with each other or become intangell. In such a way, changes from one object to another also changes. This happens even when things are far away from each other. It was named by Albert Einstein spooky action at a distance .

This process can also be found in Supercomputers. It also explains the fact that why objects have mass. By this, the particles in the future can be transported from one place to another without physically, which is called teleportation. The first teleportation of quantum phase has been done in 1998 and in the future scientists are trying to intensify more particles, different types of particles and large particles.

Use  of Attagelament

In future we can get 100% safe mode of communication through intagmentation. Quantum cryptography is capable of sending key (keys) to encrypted computer networks. Successful quantum computers can also be successful in creating future by intagetagment. Because quantum particles can exist in many stages at the same time, so many calculations can be done by them at the same time. Future quantum computers will be able to multiply 300-digit numbers in some seconds. This calculation can be accomplished in many years by a traditional computer.

Quantum gravity

Three of the four fundamental forces of nature can be understood well by quantum theory, but there is a problem with gravity. Gravity works at a very large level and quantum theory has not been there yet.

Several bizarre principles have been rendered to link gravity with quantum theory, in which according to some randomized quantum fluctuations  , the space-time dimension begins to rise. There are several infinite black holes in it, called foam . This foam was spread throughout the universe during the Big Bang i.e. the great explosion. This influenced space-time, which led to the formation of large stars and galaxies.

In the recent times, the most famous quantum gravitational theory says that particles and forces in the universe develop from small loops or string vibrations. These strings or loops are approximately 10 -35 meters long. According to another theory, space and time are different from each other at the smallest level. This is due to the spin network. Recently another theory has been rendered, which is called double special relativitySays. This theory, Einstein's universal constant, denies the speed of light and speaks of another continuous at the astral level. This controversial theory also speaks of gravity, variance and invisible energy. In this way, many theories have been proposed in recent times, for which physicists are examining many tests to check different theories.

Future technical possibilities

It is possible to develop many advanced techniques in the coming time by using atoms and other atomic particles that observe the laws of quantum physics. The scientists have developed the condition of matter by cooling atoms near the ultimate zero temperature, which is called Bose-Einstein or Fermionic Condensate . Bose-Einstein Condenset is used to make such laser rays, which will be able to build such superconductors in the coming time, which will also work at normal temperature.

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